Nairobi (dpa) - With a first name that means "freedom" in Swahili, Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta seemed destined for a career in politics.
The 55-year-old millionaire is the son of the late Jomo Kenyatta, founder and first president of the Kenyan republic after it declared independence from Britain in 1963.
He grew up economically and politically privileged, attending the best schools and going on to study political science in the United States.
After returning to Kenya, he became a member of parliament and was appointed to a ministerial post under president Daniel arap Moi.
In the 2002 presidential election, Kenyatta ran as the Kenya African National Union candidate, ultimately losing to opposition frontrunner Mwai Kibaki.
In the 2007 elections, Kenyatta decided to support Kibaki, who shares the same Kikuyu ethnic background. Kibaki's re-election generated allegations of vote rigging and unleashed two months of violence in which more than 1,000 people died and half a million were displaced.
Kenyatta was named to senior roles in the government, including finance minister.
The International Criminal Court in The Hague later charged him with having helped to instigate the 2007 violence, however the charges were dropped in 2014 for lack of evidence.
Kenyatta had meanwhile won the presidential election in 2013. After beating his rival Raila Odinga, he was sworn in as Kenya's fourth president on April 9 - with the same Bible his father had used 50 years before.
During his presidency, Kenyatta is credited with overseeing considerable economic growth - currently running at nearly 6 per cent - as well as boosting investment in infrastructure and streamlining the educational system.
But at the same time, his critics say, the infrastructure projects have increased debt to unsustainable levels and corruption has continued to flourish.
Kenyatta has also faced criticism over the presence of about 3,700 Kenyan troops in Somalia, where they form part of an African Union mission fighting the radical Islamist group al-Shabaab.
Kenya's participation in the mission has prompted al-Shabaab to frequently stage attacks in Kenya, the worst of which killed about 150 people in the eastern town of Garissa in 2015 and at least 67 people at a Nairobi shopping mall in 2013.
Kenya has also suffered losses to al-Shabaab during the military campaign in Somalia.
Speaking before Kenyatta's second election win was confirmed on Friday, analyst Abdullahi Abdille from the International Crisis Group said he expected his second term to "be more or less like his first term."
"He is seen as someone who defends the interests of the elites, especially the old elites," Abdille added. "Kenyatta has the support of the people who want to keep the status quo."